© Benas Burdulis 2009-2017

The Classical through the Digital

SPACE10: SPACE10’s resident architects explore an alternative future for digital fabrication

arch daily: IKEA's SPACE10 Lab Reimagines Craftsmanship Through Digital Techniques

medium: SPACE10’s resident architects explore an alternative future for digital fabrication

Site-specific permanent installation at SPACE10 in Copenhagen, Denmark, 2016
Made in collaboration with Emil Roman Froege, Yuan Chieh Yang, and SPACE10

SPACE10’s resident architects explore an alternative future for digital fabrication

From architects going beyond blueprints to explore buildings in virtual reality, to the rise of the design-build studio,
to the emergence of advanced digital software and production techniques, the influence of the digital on the field of architecture seems to grow larger every day.

But as welcome as digital empowerment is, does it come at a cost? For many, the adoption of digital tools — especially in the design-build movement —
has fuelled fears about the demise of traditional architectural techniques and a depreciation of interest in its classical virtues.
A plywood building made with a CNC machine still looks — and feels — digitally fabricated.

Digital artisans

But instead of accelerating the demise of traditional craftsmanship, what if digital tools enhanced it and expanded the possibilities of what we can make?
What if an architect could use a digital tool — a CNC machine, say — to create something with a distinctly human quality?
How might the machine be applied to skills such as woodwork and metalwork?
Could it be used to make objects with the aesthetic appeal, including the touch and feel, of a handmade object?
Could it also make objects that can be scaled — objects with applicability to architecture?

These were the timely questions that three architects recently explored as residents at SPACE10 — IKEA’S external future-living lab.
With a shared interest in exploring how digital tools can be applied to traditional techniques — and the potential of a CNC milling machine in particular –
Benas Burdulis, Yuan Chieh Yang, and Emil Froege together found answers in three very different but eye-opening ways.

Creating Patterns that Enhance our Perception of Light

Benas Burdulis used the precision of the CNC machine to create an optically-patterned wall which highlights and amplifies daylight entering an interior space.
“The most effective element is the varying curve that runs through each groove," he says about the subtle fluted effect that he made using the CNC machine.
"When hit with direct light, it creates a subtle wave of shadow that emphasizes the fluid nature of the light. It's something you might not notice at first,
but when you do, it will make you pay more attention to it and notice the light in the space more strongly. The goal is to make people more aware of
their own perception and sensing of space.”

Rethinking Construction with Japanese Joinery

Yuan Chieh Yang showed how a CNC machine could be used to reproduce a one-thousand-year-old style of Japanese joinery. The machine allowed him to make a
10-metre-long pole using wooden pieces joined together by hands, without any screws or hand tools. In particular, the machine allowed him to create subtle curves
in the wood, which meant the individual pieces could be easily and securely locked together — and, if needs be, disassembled. Because this old-meets-new technique
involves laminated pieces, meaning it can use recycled wood, it is scalable and therefore suitable for use in construction.

Shaping Copper by Machine – as if by Hand

Emil Froege saw the CNC machine as a way to “understand the relationship between the digital and the natural”. He explored the possibilities of using it to shape
copper — a material that people have been shaping by hand for centuries — in order to make a light reflector. First, he used the CNC machine to cut out a
shape from a copper sheet. He then used it to machine out a mould and followed the same tool path to force the copper against the mold. “You get the trace of the tool, and
you see this continuous spiral line throughout the entire object, which is quite mesmerising,” Emil says. Finally, to see if a CNC machine could do what has
long been done by hand — shape metal — he replaced its cutting tool with a small metal ball. It could.

“Our installation is reached through these continuously refined details,” Emil concludes. “They become deeper than something ornamental and aesthetics in general.
The copper reflector became something poetic, like being met by the shadow of a candle in the evening.”

Classical Techniques and 21st Century Tools

The three objects remain on display at SPACE10 in Copenhagen —a testament to our growing ability to combine classical craftsmanship with 21st century
tools, and digital ones in particular, in order to produce objects that look and feel as if made by humans. They also exemplify how digital fabrication
isn’t necessarily something to be feared, but instead should be welcomed both by architects and anyone who cares about the spaces in which we live.

Text by Simon Caspersen

Medium: acrylic-modified plaster, larch wood, copper

Photography by Niklas Adrian Vindelev, Benas Burdulis, and Emil Roman Froege